A. Basic System Architecture of OneLife Member Accounts and Blockchain Simulator in onelife.eu backoffice
This diagram shows the basic system architecture (i.e. a simplified model) of the OneLife Member account structure and the Blockchain SIMULATOR viewer/ viewer in the www.onelife.eu backend.
Note the “wall” between the Member accounts in the green area on the left and the Blockchain Simulator in the red area on the right. Whatever the transaction type you execute with OneCoins in the OneCoin and Coinsafe Account (Dealshaker purchase, Send OneCoins to Upline/Downline, “Mining”, Convert OFCs, etcetera, all visible on the left side of the diagram) you will NEVER see a corresponding OneCoin Transaction on the Block and Transaction screens (visible on the right side of the diagram).
The diagram consists of two parts which are strictly separated, just like the onelife.eu systems:
1. OneLife Member (IMA) Account Area, the green area on the left
Note: IMA means: Independent Marketing Associate.
In this green OneLife Member Account area you see:
a. A Database with data tables, which contain Promotional Tokens in the Tokens Account (TKN), OneCoins in the OneCoin Account and Coinsafe Account (ONE), Mining Pool data (ONE), euros in the Cash Account and Trading Account (EUR) and Options for Future Certificates (OFC, version 2017).
Remark: in 2017 it was possible to exchange OneCoins for OFCs/Options for Future certificates in the onelife.eu back-office and via onecoinofc.com. Currently the OFC Balance is only visible on onecoin.eu.
b. Software (computer programs) to examine account data and initiate transactions. These data are visible on screens, for instance DEALSHAKER, CASH ACCOUNT and ONECOIN ACCOUNT (miniatures of these screens are shown at the top of the diagram). Yellow and blue buttons on these screens initiate various transaction types, for instance Dealshaker purchases, “Mining” of OneCoins and – in 2017 – Converting OneCoins into OFCs (this option is not available anymore).
2. Blockchain SIMULATOR Area, the red area on the right
This area also contains data tables with OneCoins Transactions which are visible on screens, but these OneCoins have no connection whatsoever with the OneCoins in the green area on the left. Three types of data are recorded in this area:
- Unspent Transaction (TX) Outputs or UTXOs. This is a subset of the TRANSACTION OUTPUTs which have not been used as INPUT in a subsequent transaction.
Paragraph G. Description of working of OneCoin Blockchain Simulator below contains a description of the meaning and the structure of these data.
B. Proof: no connection between Transactions in OneCoin & Coinsafe Account and Transactions in Blockchain Simulator
First and foremost, our investigators have executed and examined nine types of transactions with OneCoins, see menu option Tests with OneCoin Transactions for a more detailed description. Among others, they purchased products via Dealshaker, sent OneCoins to Upline/Downline IMAs, “Mined” OneCoins by submitting Promotional Tokens and converted OneCoins into OFCs. They NEVER saw a corresponding OneCoin Transaction on the Blockchain Simulator screens i.e. the BLOCK and TRANSACTION screens in the Crypto Currency / Blockchain section of the onelife.eu website!
Secondly, the vast majority of OneCoin transactions in the Blockchain Simulator Area are nonsensical anyway, for instance:
a. There are transactions with extremely small OneCoin amounts, much smaller than the corresponding value of 1 Token submitted for “mining”.
b. A number of “addresses” are involved in extremely many transactions.
c. A large number of Transactions with amounts with fractions don’t match with the applicable Difficulty Factor.
d. There are wild fluctuations in the total number of transactions per day which don’t match with events in the “real world” (see screenshot with graph below).
Thirdly, if you inspect the Transaction history in the OneCoin Account and Coinsafe Account there is not a single piece of evidence that these transactions are related to (i.e. recorded in) the Blockchain:
a. All accounts (OneCoin, Coinsafe, Tokens, Cash, Trading) are connected to the User Name/Account Name that members choose themselves when they create a OneLife account, before the first OneCoin transaction is recorded in the OneCoin Account.
b. There is zero proof that OneLife members own a Private Key.
c. OneLife members don’t see a Wallet ID.
d. In the OneCoin Account no Transaction IDs are visible which refer to the OneCoin Transactions in the Crypto Currency/Blockchain section.
e. In the OneCoin Account and Dealshaker Account no Transaction Timestamps are visible, only Dates (however, before 5 December 2016 with the old version of the onelife.eu website, Timestamps were visible in the Transaction History of the OneCoin, Coinsafe, Tokens, Cash and Trading Accounts).
f. No Address of sender/receiver is visible in case of transfers of OneCoin from/to other members or Dealshaker purchases, only the User Name/Account Name of the other member or Merchant.
C. Proof: mismatch between First Transactions in OneCoin Account and creation of genesis block
The first two transactions in the OneCoin Account of a OneLife account we used for experiments have Date/Timestamps which are 9.5 hours earlier than the launch of OneCoin Blockchain Simulator Version 2, i.e. these transactions were recorded long before the creation of the very first OneCoin Block. See screenshot in Tests with OneCoin Transactions.
D. Proof: mismatch between First Transactions in OneCoin Account and creation of genesis block; “mining” was possible when Blockchain Simulator was down for maintenance
“Mining” OneCoins by submitting Tokens was possible on 1 February 2017 during a period when the OneCoin Blockchain Simulator was down for maintenance.
The Date/Timestamps of the two consecutive Blocks before and after these mining transactions show a time gap of 26 hours and 23 minutes, so even if the Blockchain viewer shows only a part of the transactions (which would be nonsensical anyway) this is a major inconsistency.
E. Overall conclusion: OneCoin does not have a real Blockchain, it has a Blockchain SIMULATOR instead
All evidence summarized above furnishes irrefutable proof that the OneCoin “Blockchain” as shown on the BLOCKCHAIN, BLOCK and TRANSACTION screens is a Blockchain Simulator with fake Block and Transaction data and that OneCoin is not a cryptocurrency.
Remark regarding Audit Reports: there is zero proof that the auditor of Blockchain Version 2 has seen other data than the OneCoin Simulator transactions in the red area.
All 11 Audit Reports from October 2016 till August 2017 contain a statement that the tests are performed on the data provided by One Network Services Ltd; the auditor accepts these data as correct and holds no responsibility concerning the data correctness.
In all Audit Reports the auditor carefully limits the scope of his investigations in such a way, that he can give positive opions without lying, based on the data in the OneCoin Blockchain Simulator..
Remark: the ultimo month block height numbers mentioned in the Audit Reports match with the Block data which are visible on the Blockchain Simulator screens. See menu option Audit Reports for more information about this.
F. Procedure for investigation of Blockchain Simulator
F.1. Usage of OneLife Accounts with OneCoins and Tokens
Our investigators have obtained the credentials (i.e. User Name, Password, Transaction Password) of a number of OneLife accounts, which have been handed over voluntarily by OneLife Members/IMAs who have come to the conclusion that they have been deceived (i.e. they found that OneCoin is NOT a cryptocurrency). These accounts contain OneCoins and Promotional Tokens which we have used to execute a large number of test/experiments with OneCoin transactions. We have also created a number of free Rookie Accounts which we use for time-consuming automated tests with the OneCoin Blockchain Simulator.
F.2. Usage of automated tool Selenium IDE to find hyperlink to genesis Block #0 and to download OneCoin Simulator data
For an extensive investigation of the characteristics of the OneCoin Simulator we used an automated tool (Selenium IDE, a Firefox plugin) to browse through the Blockchain screens and save relevant Block and Transaction data.
First we found the hyperlink of the very first Block of Blockchain Version 2, i.e. the “genesis block” with Block Height #0 created on 1 October 2016 09:31:13 GMT/UTC. See Menu option Tests with OneCoin Transactions for a screenshot and a direct hyperlink.
Then we used the “next block(s)” hyperlink to browse automatically through all Cryptocurrency/BLOCKCHAIN screens, up to and including the Block with Height #336967, created on 31 May 2017 23:59:07 GMT/UTC. We saved all Block and Transaction data shown on the screens in one combined file, 601 MB/MegaBytes of data in total.
- You may try to download this 601 MB file at your own risk (WARNING: IT TAKES A LOT OF BANDWIDTH!!!) from: Dropbox – OneCoin Transactions Oct 2016 – May 2017
- The file is too big to be viewed with Windows software like Word, Notepad, Excel, Notepad++
- Depending on the specs of your computer, EditPad Lite 7 might be usable. Download link: Free Download for Personal Use
F.3. Format of downloaded Block and Transaction data
We show two examples of the format of the downloaded OneCoin Blockchain Simulator data.
Block #0, genesis Block (login required)
0;9da2f0dd582b38e49bea35b87cded46fe8550d4d259e40c14812d8f404f3954f;01/10/2016 09:31:13;1;1 986 580 000.00000000 ONE TXID: f6346514762d370a8771d2426d36e3fee50c25986ad10170eb5fa4589c72d1c1 9UHVMKSB8xdgzjY5X82gC5An4NiupfiUE5 1 986 580 000.00000000 ONE
Block #336967 (the last Block we downloaded) (login required)
336967;9db3d6dea15616bbdd240e47c36f77751ab587c6206c8d7e860f601fcadc39e2;31/05/2017 23:59:07;4;1 288 002.36494079 ONE TXID: 5c5fcd48f35bfd9a5ebbd9b54e70db9cb2efa9095eab11ded6b8493fcccc9f0d 9UQzXrpt7YgNqZ6SuqaBHBod1EjWWuPnmQ 50 000.00000000 ONE TXID: 503ea42f99f01dda888a2d7028cdbedde7796a39abaefb36d73afaffd8c7cfdb 9p6sR1wzFGGCWCCvkXNs9e4srpbTav2LKH 614 271.92347444 ONE 9a31igzvhMXpHvxXFwHBgdAz9yFNatSAXd 50 000.00000000 ONE 9Z8s5Tw7toaoMBSE8rCqadfZ5b2D3o3oPc 564 271.92347444 ONE TXID: e48c88806e8c303318b24c8aa796a30e4ddfae4df63a1f90cc925499b082e7ed 9nYN23jvr8XZ6sVokBcntHi3Tqwa1awKGz 623 730.44146635 ONE 9a31igzvhMXpHvxXFwHBgdAz9yFNatSAXd 50 000.00000000 ONE 9bBGL5GkM4uTj8Q9sN3y9y3KAyzZY4xJFr 573 730.44146635 ONE TXID: cfcdaa11f20215e790cb31083cf089f867696835511ec61a7513e419e6ef37a5
Explanation of Block data format
The first line of each Block contains the BLOCK SUMMARY data that we have used for statistical analysis, for instance Block #336967:
- 336967: Block Height i.e. sequence number
- 9db3d6dea15616bbdd240e47c36f77751ab587c6206c8d7e860f601fcadc39e2: Block Hash, which can be used in a hyperlink to see the Block data screen. If you put the Block Hash behind:
… the result is a direct hyperlink of the Blockchain Simulator screen with the Block data. The complete hyperlink of Block #336967 is:
- 31/05/2017 23:59:07: Date/Timestamp of creation/recording in GMT/UTC Time Zone
- 4: Number of Transactions in Block
- 1 288 002.36494079 ONE: Output Total i.e. sum of all Output Amounts of all Transactions in Block
Explanation of Transaction data format
After the line with the Block data there is one line for each Transaction in the Block, starting with “TXID: “.
The second item on each Transaction line is the TransactionID, which can be used in a hyperlink to see the Transaction data screen. If you put the TransactionID behind:
… the result is a direct hyperlink of the Blockchain Simulator screen with the Transaction data. The complete hyperlink of the Transaction in Genesis Block #0 is:
The TransactionID is followed by one or more combinations of Input/Output Address and OneCoin Amount, separated by spaces.
Remark: the format shown above does not show the difference between Inputs and Outputs, so if a Transaction contains three or more Inputs/Outputs, the meaning of the data can be ambiguous and must be checked on the BLOCK or TRANSACTION screens (see explanation of the TRANSACTIONS screen below).
Screenshots of Block #336967
The SUMMARY section of the BLOCK screen contains among others:
- total number of transactions in the Block
- output total amount in ONE/OneCoins (i.e. the sum of all Transaction amounts at the right of the arrows in the TRANSACTIONS section)
- Creation date / timestamp in format “day/month/year hour:minute:second” in the GMT/UTC time-zone
The HASHES section contains among others:
- hash of this Block (starting with “9db3d6dea”) which is also visible at the top of the screen in the hyperlink after “…/cryptocurrency/blockchain/block/”
- direct hyperlink to the previous block (starting with “7d6c947f7”)
- direct hyperlink to the next block(s) (starting with “577cc83e3”)
The TRANSACTIONS section of the BLOCK screen contains:
- TransactionID (TXID) which contains a direct hyperlink to the ONECOIN TRANSACTION screen (which shows detail data of one Transaction)
- to the left of each arrow: the Transaction INPUT amount(s) in ONE/OneCoins, which always has been a Transaction OUTPUT amount of an earlier Transaction.
NB: the first Transaction on this screenshot does not contain a Transaction INPUT Amount, as it is a so-called Coinbase Transaction; it only shows 50,000 newly “mined” OneCoins as Transaction OUTPUT Amount to the right of the arrow
- to the right of each arrow: the Transaction OUTPUT amount(s) in ONE/OneCoins, also called Unspent Transaction OUTPUTs / UTXO
- the last Transaction on this screen does not contain any amounts as it shows a nonsensical KYC / Know Your Customer Transaction
After clicking the second hyperlink on the screen above, the ONECOIN TRANSACTION screen is shown.
F.4. Excel spreadsheet and graph with summary data for statistical analysis
We imported the Block data into an Excel spreadsheet to gather statistical data, for instance calculations of the daily total number of OneCoin Transactions. This is a screenshot with the data of the last fifteen Blocks on 31 May 2017. The total number of Transactions on that day: 5,062.
In a different worksheet we made a summary of the daily totals. These are the data of the period with the highest number of of daily transactions in the OneCoin Blockchain Explorer:
Based on these daily summary data we made a graph, which shows the total number of OneCoin Transactions on each day in the period 1 October 2016 up to and including 31 May 2017. Each blue vertical bar in the graph below represents one day.
Note the nonsensical wild fluctuations in these daily totals which have no relationship whatsoever with real life events in the OneCoin/Onelife ecosystem:
G. Description of working of OneCoin Blockchain Simulator
As shown in the first diagram on this page the OneCoin Blockchain Simulator consists of several components:
- Block and Transaction Data, and a table with Unspent Transaction Outputs/UTXO (we will explain this term later).
- Software that generates Block and Transaction data.
- Blockchain Viewer/Browser Software that displays the Block and Transaction Data on screens.
G.2. Characteristics of Blocks
- Each Block contains one, and only one, so-called “Coinbase transaction”. This is a Transaction with no INPUTS and only one OUTPUT of 50,000 newly “mined” OneCoins which is the reward for the “miners” (this OneCoin mining process is completely fake though).
Note: the only exception to this rule is the “genesis” Block with Height (= sequence number) #0. The Output Amount of this Block is 1,986,580,000 ONE.
- A Block can contain 0, 1 or more “OneCoin Transactions” which use Unspent Transaction OUTPUTs of earlier Blocks as Transaction INPUTs and create new Unspent Transaction OUTPUTs.
- A Block can contain 0, 1 or more “KYC Transactions”. These KYC Transactions are also complete nonsensical.
- Blocks are created at intervals of one minute at an average, with deviations of only a few seconds.
- All Blocks make up a continuous chain (hence the term “Blockchain”), connected by previous block and next block(s) hyperlinks.
- It is possible that some cryptographic techniques are used in the OneCoin Blockchain Simulator, for instance for the calculation of the Transaction Hash, and for the calculation of the “Merkle Root”, which in real cryptocurrencies is a Hash of the Hash of all Transactions in the Block.
Note: the usage of any cryptographic techniques would completely irrelevant because all Blocks and Transactions are fake anyway.
The BLOCKCHAIN overview screen (login required) refreshes automatically and shows the last six Transactions and the last six Blocks:
Note the text underneath the animated GIF, especially the sentence in bold. Nothing in this text indicates that only a selection of Transactions is shown, on the contrary: “detailed information on each mined block and performed transactions”.
- IMPORTANT: The above graphics is used for pure visual purposes and should not be perceived as a real representation of the blockchain system. The blockchain is based on a pre-programmed mathematical algorithm which allows for finite amount of solutions to occur – also called mining. You can see detailed information on each mined block and performed transactions in the tables above.
G.3. Characteristics of Transactions
The following four Transaction types exist in the OneCoin Blockchain Simulator:
- Genesis Transaction: by definition there is only one genesis block, and it is the only Block without a previous block. OneCoin Simulator Block #0 contains one Transaction. It has no Transaction INPUTs, only a Transaction OUTPUT aka UTXO / Unspent Transaction OUTPUT.
- Coinbase Transaction: has no Transaction INPUTs, only a Transaction OUTPUT / UTXO with 50,000 newly “mined” OneCoins.
- OneCoin Transaction: takes Unspent Transaction OUTPUTs of earlier Transaction(s) and uses these as Transaction INPUTs, to create new Transaction OUTPUTs / UTXO. Because the “Transaction Fees” are always zero, in each Transaction the sum of the Transaction INPUT Amounts is exactly equal to the sum of the Transaction OUTPUT Amounts.
Note: we have checked thousands of Transactions and we never found any deviation or inconsistency on this aspect, which is part of the proof that the OneCoin Blockchain is “internally consistent” and “looks like” a real Blockchain (although all Transactions are fake).
- KYC Transaction: KYC stands for “Know Your Customer”. According to OneCoin Founder and Visionary “Dr” Ruja Ignatova, OneCoin is the first cryptocurrency to store KYC documents on its blockchain.
G.4. We never found “double spends”
Transaction OUTPUTs can be used as Transaction INPUTs in later Transactions only once; so-called “double spends” are strictly prohibited in any cryptocurrency, although they can exist temporarily. To check this, a table or list of Unspent Transaction Output / UTXO must be maintained. As soon as an UTXO is used as Transaction Input in a later OneCoin Transaction the UTXO is deleted from this table.
- Because combinations of Address and OneCoin Amount are not unique, i.e. the same combinations can occur multiple times in different Transactions, some extra Identification is necessary in the TRANSACTION and UTXO tables in the Blockchain Simulator database to have a unique “key” for each UTXO. This Identification is not visible on screens.
- Although all OneCoin Transactions in the Blockchain Simulator section are fake, it is worth noticing that during our investigations we have never detected a double spend. The absence of double spends is also a characteristic of the OneCoin Blockchain Simulator which makes it “look like” a real Blockchain.
G.5. Characteristics of OneCoin Addresses
A OneCoin Address, or in short Address, is an identifier of 34 alphanumerical characters, always beginning with the number 9, that represents a destination for a OneCoin Transaction or “fake payment” in the Blockchain Simulator.
Interesting finding: we checked about 50 randomly selected OneCoin Addresses on http://lenschulwitz.com/base58 and we found that they all pass the so-called Base58Test. This is a validator of Bitcoin addresses, so it looks like the OneCoin Addresses also use Base58 Encoding. The screenshot below shows the validation of the Output Address of the Transaction in genesis Block #0: 9UHVMKSB8xdgzjY5X82gC5An4NiupfiUE5
You can try this out by copying and pasting this value to the first input field and clicking the Check if address is valid button.
Note: For OneCoin Addresses the validator gives a warning “Address type: ‘Abnormal’ ” because this website is made to check Bitcoin Addresses which always start with a 1 or a 3, while OneCoin Adressess always start with a 9.
Base58 means that the following 58 alphanumeric characters can be used, which can be easily distinguished in most fonts:
- The digits 1 to 9, so 0 (zero) is excluded)
- All uppercase and lowercase letters, except capital O (Oscar), capital I (India) and lower case l (lima).
Base58 Encoded Addresses contain a checksum to prevent typing errors. Because OneCoin Addresses pass the test, this is proof that these are not just arbitrary or “random” numbers. You can try this out by changing one character in the address.
For instance, replace the last digit 5 by a 6, and repeat the test. This time an error message “Invalid Bitcoin address! Bad SHA-256 checksum!” is visible:
Replacing one of the lower case characters “ï” by a capital “I” (India) results in this error message: “Cannot Decode! Invalid Base58 Character(s)! ”
G.6. Diagram of OneCoin Transaction types
This diagram contains a summary of the data of four Blocks and seven Transactions which exist in the OneCoin Blockchain Simulator. By means of these data we explain some concepts and terms.
Explanation of the diagram
a. BLOCK #0: the Transaction of this Block sends 1,986,580,000 ONE, which according to Ruja Ignatova were “mined” during the OneLife MasterMind Event in Bangkok on 1 October 2016, to Output Address starting with 9UHVMK.
NB: to keep the picture compact and readable we only show the first six characters of Transaction IDs and Addresses because they are unique within this context. Of course we checked the complete IDs and Addresses in our file with downloaded Block and Transaction data.
b. In the second Transaction of BLOCK #16041 this Unspent Transaction OUTPUT / UTXO of 1,986,580,000 ONE with Address 9UHVMK is used as INPUT (see first blue arrow). The Transaction with Transaction ID / TXID 43d938 creates two new OUTPUTs/UTXO:
- 1,000,000 ONE is sent to Output Address 9ZTji2.
- 1,985,580,000 ONE is sent to Output Address 9gZYr1.
Now the genesis Transaction OUTPUT of 1,986,580,000 ONE at Address 9UHVMK is fully spent and may NOT be used as INPUT again in later Transactions, so it is deleted from the UTXO table. If it would still be used again, this would be an illegal “double spend” which would make the Blockchain corrupt.
Note: we have checked hundreds of Transaction OUTPUTs and INPUTs and we have never found a double spend, which is part of the proof that the OneCoin Blockchain Simulator judged on its own (i.e. apart from the OneCoin Transactions in OneCoin Accounts and Coinsafe Accounts) is “consistent” and “looks real”.
c. Three Transactions of BLOCK #20519 use three Unspent Transaction OUTPUTs of earlier Transactions (see the three blue arrows) and they each create two new Unspent Transaction OUTPUTs / UTXO.
Screenshots of Blocks and Transactions used in the above diagram with OneCoin Transaction types
Hyperlink of Block #16040
This unique feature to store KYC documents in the Blockchain was announced on 11 June 2016 during the CoinRush Event. The news was repeated when the new Blockchain was launched on 1 October 2016, but only on 27 February 2017 the first fake “KYC Transaction” was visible in Block #207038.
Apart from the Transaction Id no (encrypted) data are visible. Only a Simple Simon will believe that it is useful to store some encrypted version of a drivers license or passport in a Blockchain. It goes without saying that this feature is complete nonsensical.
A Coinbase Transaction with 50,000 newly “mined” OneCoins followed by a series of 5 “KYC Transactions” in Block #207048